Table 12.8 The Factors That Foster Political Participation
  Substantial Effect Some Effect Small Effect No Effect
TIME-BASED ACTS Civic skills, Interest Education, Free Income Vocabulary, Partisanship,
time, Information, Citizenship, Job level,
Efficacy Organizational affiliation,
Religious attendance
VOTING Interest, Information, Religious Vocabulary, Education, Civic skills, Free time,
Partisan strength, attendance Income, Efficacy Job Level, Organizational Affiliation
POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS Income Interest Partisan strength, Education, Civic skills, Vocabulary,
Information Free time, Efficacy, Citizenship,
job level, Organizational
affiliation, Religious attendance
POLITICAL DISCUSSION Interest Information Income, Partisan Education, Vocabulary, Civic skills,
strength Free time, Efficacy, Citizenship,
        Job Level, Organizational Affiliation
Source: Sidney Verba, Kay Lehman Schlozman, and Henry E. Brady.  1995.  Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.